Summarizing

Directions: After reading the article below, first answer the questions and then summarize the piece.

Raynaudís Phenomenon

by The Arthritis Society

Raynaudís phenomenon is a condition resulting from poor circulation in the extremities, i.e., fingers and toes. In people with Raynaudís phenomenon, when their skin is exposed to cold or they become emotionally upset, the blood vessels under the skin tighten, and the blood flow slows. This is called vasospasm. The limbs have fewer large blood vessels, and these areas may turn blue because less oxygen is reaching the skin. The skin will also feel cold because less blood is reaching the skin to keep it warm. While attacks of vasospasm may last from minutes to hours, only rarely do they cause severe tissue damage. People diagnosed with scleroderma or SjŲgrenís syndrome are at higher risk of developing Raynaudís phenomenon than the general population. Raynaudís phenomenon is present in almost all people with scleroderma and 35% of those with SjŲgrenís syndrome.

The exact cause of Raynaudís phenomenon is not known.Researchers hypothesize that it may result from other diseases that affect the blood vessels. For example, it is often associated with diseases such as artherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma. It can also follow repeated trauma to an area, particularly vibrations such as those caused by typing or playing the piano.

While the cause of Raynaudís phenomenon is unknown, its warning signs are more distinct. If peopleís fingers, feet, noses, or ears become blue when they are cold or emotionally upset, they probably have Raynaudís phenomenon. This is common in those who suffer from scleroderma or SjŲgrenís syndrome, but it also occurs in those who have not been diagnosed with any form of arthritis. In some cases, especially in people with scleroderma, small, painful sores may appear on the tips of the fingers or toes. If the condition progresses, the blood flow to the area can become permanently decreased. If this happens to patientsí hands, their fingers can become thin and tapered and have smooth, shiny skin and slow growing nails.

Finally, although there is no cure for Raynaudís phenomenon, there are a number of steps that can be taken to manage the condition. First, physicians may prescribe medicines that relax the walls of the blood vessels. Nifedipine, dilatizaem, and nitroglycerine are especially effective in relaxing these walls. Other medicines may be prescribed if patientsí conditions are connected with another disease such as scleroderma. Patients with Raynaudís phenomenon should be especially protective of their bodies. They should keep their hands and feet warm by wearing gloves and warm socks in cold weather. They should not smoke, for smoking triggers vasospasms and will worsen the symptoms of Raynaudís phenomenon.

1.      Does the introductory paragraph contain a thesis?

a.       Yes

b.      No

2.      Does the article contain a conclusion?

a.       Yes

b.      No

3.      What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

a.       Researchers do not know what causes the condition.

b.      Researchers associate it with diseases such as artherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma.

c.       Researchers think that it may be a complication of other blood diseases and that it may result from trauma.

4.      What is the main idea of the third paragraph?

a.       Just as Raynaudís phenomenon has no known cause, it has no warning signs.

b.      Blue noses, extremities, limbs, and ears are warning signs of Raynaudís phenomenon.

c.       There are four major warning signs of Raynaudís phenomenon.

5.      What is the main idea of the fourth paragraph?

a.       Steps should be taken to manage Raynaudís phenomenon.

b.      Administering nifedipine, dilatizaem and nitroglycerine, protecting the body, and not smoking help to manage Raynaudís phenomenon.

c.       Certain prescription drugs, protection of the body, and cessation of smoking can help to manage Raynaudís phenomenon.

d.    

6.      What is the thesis of the article?

a.      Raynaudís phenomenon is present in people with scleroderma and in people with SjŲgrenís syndrome.

b.     Raynaudís phenomenon can be described according to three aspects.

c.      Raynaudís phenomenon is a condition resulting from poor circulation in the extremities.

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The Arthritis Society, in ďRaynaudís Phenomenon,Ē describes the condition according to possible causes, warning signs, and management. Although researchers have been unable to pinpoint the exact cause, they suspect related blood diseases and repeated physical trauma may lead to the condition. Furthermore, there are four signs that should warn people that they may be suffering from Raynaudís phenomenon. Finally, certain medications, protection of the body, and cessation of smoking are used to manage the condition.

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